Jerry Lee Lewis

 Jerry Lee Lewis

 Jerry Lee Lewis – circa 1958

 “My name is Jerry Lee Lewis, I come from Louisiana / I’m gonna do a little boogie on this here pianner” – ‘Lewis Boogie’ (Jerry Lee Lewis)

There is a crazed gunman outside the rock star’s mansion.  The obviously inebriated possessor of the .38 derringer hollers, “Who the hell does that sonofabitch think he is?  Doesn’t wanna be disturbed!  He ain’t no damn better’n anybody else!”  It is 23 November 1976 and security guard Robert Loyd telephones the house for instructions.  He is told to call the police.  Officer B.J. Kirkpatrick of the Memphis police force leads the contingent of law enforcers who arrive on the scene.  The gunman is disarmed and taken back to the station house where he is charged with public intoxication and possession of a weapon.  “I’ll have your f***ing job, boy!” howls the arrested man.  The rock star in the mansion is not Jerry Lee Lewis.  This incident takes place at Graceland, the home of Elvis Presley.  The crazed gunman?  That’s Jerry Lee Lewis.

Jerry Lee Lewis is born 29 September 1935 in Ferriday, Louisiana, U.S.A.  He is the son of Elmo and Mamie Lewis.  It is Elmo who teaches his son to play piano.  Legend has it that when Jerry Lee is 8, his parents mortgage their home to buy him a nine-hundred dollar piano.  They fail to make the repayments and the family house is lost.

In his early teens, Jerry Lee Lewis studies to be a minister at the Assembly of God Institute in Waxahachie, Texas.  His cousin, Jimmy Swaggert, goes on to become a televangelist.  Jerry Lee Lewis is more inclined to turn a hymn into something rather questionable, adding improvised words.  He gets homesick, quits, and returns to Ferriday.

Jerry Lee Lewis plays in the school orchestra but then drops out to play music professionally when he is 15.  Jerry Lee plays ‘country swing, rural blues, piano boogies and jump-band R & B [rhythm and blues].’  However he is best known for playing gospel songs.  In February 1952, when he is just 16, Lewis marries his first wife, Dorothy Barton.  She is 17 and the daughter of a Pentecostal preacher.  For a while, Jerry Lee Lewis tries his hand at preaching himself at the Church of God on Mississippi Avenue in Ferriday.  It doesn’t work out very well.  By October 1953, Dorothy Barton has left him and gone back to her parents.  The marriage is over, Jerry Lee’s preaching is over, and he is back to performing in clubs.

In September 1953 Jerry Lee Lewis marries another teenage girl, Jane Mitcham.  This wedding takes place twenty-three days before his marriage to Dorothy Barton ends, so the 17 year old Mr Lewis is, technically, a bigamist, and there is some doubt about the validity of the second marriage.  Jane bears two children to her spouse: Jerry Lee Lewis, Junior (1954 -1973), a fair-haired lad like his father; and Ronnie Guy (born 1956) who is dark-haired.  Lewis Senior denies Ronnie is his child and, with this justification, dismisses Jane Mitcham.  Their marriage officially ends in October 1957.

In between his marital dramas, Jerry Lee Lewis is still playing at the Dixie Club in Natchez, Mississippi.  He has a twenty-minute radio spot on station WNAT.  By this time, rock ‘n’ roll has been born.  Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee, is the centre of that music explosion.  It is there that Elvis Presley cuts his first recordings in 1954.  In 1956 Jerry Lee Lewis decides to go to Sun Records and audition for the label boss Sam Phillips.  He doesn’t find him.  Instead it is Phillips’ assistant, Jack Clement, who plays host to the newcomer.  Jerry Lee Lewis boasts that he can play piano like Chet Atkins can play guitar.  Since Chet Atkins is a highly regarded musician at the time, Clement, somewhat suspiciously, feels he should give a listen to the immodest young blonde man.  Jack Clement remembers the audition recording consisting of ‘four country tunes.’  Jerry Lee Lewis claims it was a lengthy appraisal where he played “everything from [the songs of bluesman] Muddy Waters to [the Christmas carol] ‘Silent Night’.”  Jack Clement sends the applicant away with what has become the label’s standard advice: “Go learn some rock ‘n’ roll.”  Sam Phillips does hear the tracks Jerry Lee Lewis laid down and is interested enough to be on hand when Lewis returns three weeks later.  Sam Phillips produces all Lewis’ product on Sun Records.

Jerry Lee Lewis is not really a songwriter.  He pens a few songs, but they are rare.  For the most part, he performs either cover versions of songs by other artists or tunes written especially for him.

As a vocalist, Jerry Lee Lewis’ background with gospel music and preaching comes through loud and strong.  Or at least the hectoring, impassioned style of the preacher is present.  However, it is not hymns of praise to the Lord that make up Lewis’ repertoire.  The same, transported fits of ecstasy are transposed to celebrations of rock ‘n’ roll, booze and women.  Actually, it’s mostly women that are the subject of his works.  It’s not a sweet, chaste admiration he expresses either; it’s a barely suppressed lust.

Jerry Lee Lewis is not lacking in ego.  Not just his musical prowess is boasted about.  He frequently takes time out to comb his luxuriant blonde hair and preen for the audience’s presumed pleasure.

The chief characteristic of Jerry Lee Lewis’ work is his piano-playing.  Not for Mr Lewis the genteel manner of the concert pianist.  Instead his role models seem to be the keyboard thumpers in the parlours of whorehouses.  His left hand pounds out the bass notes so powerfully that, on some of his early recordings, Jerry Lee Lewis does not even use a bass-guitar player.  His right hand is equally forceful, demonstrating that, as a keyboardist, he has great attack.  Notes are not so much picked out as pummelled into submission.  For counterpoint, there are series of triplets and glissandos (i.e. running a finger down the length of the keyboard).  During a tour with fellow Sun recording artists Johnny Cash and Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis becomes quite a showman.  He pushes away the stool to play while standing up.  He also bangs on the keys with his boot heel.  On one occasion in the late 1950s his showmanship and his ego collide.  Forced to accept second billing to fellow early rock star Chuck Berry on a package tour, at the end of his set Jerry Lee pours lighter fluid on his piano and sets it on fire.  He exits, saying, “I’d like to see any son of a bitch follow that!”

This sort of display earns Jerry Lee Lewis the nickname ‘The Killer’.  In reference to Elvis Presley, the King of Rock ‘N’ Roll, Lewis proclaims, “Elvis was the greatest but I’m the best.”

Jerry Lee Lewis first appears on record when he plays piano on ‘Red Hot’, a track laid down by another Sun Records artist, Billy Lee Riley, on 30 January 1956.

Jerry Lee Lewis’ first single in his own right is ‘Crazy Arms’ in 1956.  This is a rock ‘n’ roll cover version of a recent country music hit for Ray Price.  The song ‘sells well regionally, but doesn’t dent the national charts.’

On 4 December 1956 Jerry Lee Lewis, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins and Johnny Cash gather around the piano at Sun Studios for an impromptu sing-along.  They cut songs like ‘Keeper Of The Key’ and ‘Just A Little Walk With Jesus’.  These recordings are not released until twenty-five years later when the foursome is credited as The Million Dollar Quartet.

Jerry Lee Lewis’ next single, in June 1957, is ‘Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’ (US no. 3, UK no. 8).  The song was originally recorded by Roy Hall.  Officially, the songwriter is Dave Williams, but Roy Hall is said to have also contributed to the composition.  Although it is one of his favourites, Jerry Lee sometimes forgets the lyrics so he makes up his own.  The relatively sedate “Come on over, baby / Whole lotta shakin’ goin’ on” mutates in another verse into the oddball proclamation “We got chicken in the barn-uh / Come on over, baby / Baby got the bull by the horn-uh.”  It’s a rollicking performance of honky tonk piano playing.  ‘Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’ becomes one of Jerry Lee Lewis’ signature tunes.

The first television appearance by Jerry Lee Lewis is on ‘The Steve Allen Show’ on 28 July 1957.  The singer makes two more appearances on the program.

On 3 November 1957 ‘Great Balls Of Fire’ (US no. 2, UK no. 1) backed with ‘You Win Again’ (US no. 95) is issued.  The A-side is composed by Otis Blackwell, the author of Elvis Presley’s ‘Don’t Be Cruel’.  The great African-American songwriter was inspired to pen the song for Jerry Lee Lewis after seeing the singer perform on ‘The Steve Allen Show’.  “You shake my nerves and you rattle my brain,” sings Jerry Lee, “Too much love drives a man insane / You broke my will / But what a thrill / Goodness gracious, great balls of fire.”  Originally, the lyric read “Great God almighty” instead of “Goodness gracious” but Jerry Lee demurred.  The whole song seems to trouble the performer.  He protests to Sam Phillips, “How can the devil save souls?  I got the devil in me!”  Whatever his uncertainty, Jerry Lee Lewis’ exuberant, uninhibited performance betrays no such leanings.  The song is a riot of fast piano runs and is his finest moment.  The flipside, ‘You Win Again’, is a staggering country number.

On 11 December 1957 Jerry Lee Lewis secretly marries his third wife.  The ceremony takes place in Hernando, Tennessee.  Myra Gayle Brown, the bride, is Jerry Lee Lewis’ first cousin, once removed.  She is 13 years old.

In January 1958 Jerry Lee Lewis goes on tour in Australia.  Buddy Holly And The Crickets are actually the headliners.  Paul Anka and Jordie Sands are also on the bill.

On 15 February 1958, another Otis Blackwell composition, ‘Breathless’ (US no. 7, UK no. 8) is released as the next single for Jerry Lee Lewis.  “My heart goes ‘round and ‘round,” he sings, “My love comes tumblin’ down / You leave me [breathes out…] [whispers] Breath-less!”  It’s all rather theatrical, but Jerry Lee puts it across with irresistible verve.  Roy Orbison, at the dawn of his own career, crafts Lewis’ next single, ‘Down The Line’ (US no. 51).

On 22 May 1958 Jerry Lee Lewis arrives at London’s Heathrow Airport to begin a British tour.  He is accompanied by his wife, Myra, and several members of his family.  His managers have suggested the singer keep quiet about his marriage, but questions from the press result in the story getting out about Myra’s age and her pre-existing proximity to her new spouse on the family tree.  Although such child brides and perilously close to incestuous marriages may be comparatively acceptable by the mores of the southern United States at this point in history, the British press are outraged.  Such is the furore that the thirty-seven date tour is cancelled after just the third show on 26 May.

“This whole thing started because I tried to tell the truth,” Jerry Lee Lewis explains in an open letter back in the U.S.A.  It is published on 9 June 1958.  “I hope that if I am washed up as an entertainer it won’t be because of the bad publicity, because I can cry and wish all I want to, but I can’t control the press or the sensationalism that these people will go to, to get a scandal started to sell papers.”

The problem is not confined to the U.K.  A two-night stand at the Café de Paris in New York is cancelled after just one show on 11 June 1958.  The show is not sold-out and the press are ‘openly hostile.’

Jerry Lee Lewis co-writes with Ronald J. Hargrave his next single, ‘High School Confidential’ (US no. 21, UK no. 12).  “Open up-a, honey / It’s your lover boy me that’s knocking,” he bids.  The song is basically a celebration of the dance party at the local school: “Everybody hoppin’ / Everybody boppin’ / At the high school hop tonight.”  Roland James offers some tasty guitar work on the track.

Around this time, the Killer unleashes his first album, ‘Jerry Lee Lewis’ (1958).  This Sun Records disc includes ‘Crazy Arms’ and ‘High School Confidential’ as well as cover versions of Elvis Presley’s ‘Don’t Be Cruel’ and Carl Perkins’ ‘Matchbox’.  Aside from these, perhaps the most interesting track is ‘Ubangi Stomp’.  This is a cover version of another rockabilly number.  The original was performed by Warren Smith in 1956 but wasn’t a hit.  Written by Charles Underwood, it’s the account of a trek to Africa where are found the true roots of rock ‘n’ roll.  Jerry Lee Lewis is more of a singles-oriented artist, but this is probably the best qualified candidate for his finest individual album of new material.

Another album, ‘High School Confidential’ (1958), follows.  As well as the title track, it includes ‘Fools Like Me’.  ‘High School Confidential’ is probably designed to cash-in on the movie ‘High School Confidential’ (1958).  Jerry Lee Lewis makes an appearance in the film but the main plot is about ‘a narcotics officer sneaking into a tough high school to bust hopheads [drug-addicts].’

One more single is released in 1958: ‘Break Up’ (US no. 52) b/w ‘I’ll Make It Up To You’ (US no. 85).

In 1959, Jerry Lee Lewis’ wife, Myra, gives birth to a son, Steve Allen Lewis – possible named after the television show host Steve Allen on who’s program Jerry Lee Lewis got one of his biggest breaks.

Jerry Lee Lewis issues three singles in 1959: ‘I’ll Sail My Ship Alone’ (US no. 93), ‘Lovin’ Up A Storm’ (US no. 81, UK no. 28) and ‘Let’s Talk About Us’ (US no. 76) (the last-named is written by Otis Blackwell).  Although they are of generally high quality, the taint on Jerry Lee Lewis’ reputation from the teen-bride affair ensures they have little chance.  ‘Baby Baby Bye Bye’ (UK no. 47) is issued in 1960 and a cover version of fellow pianist Ray Charles’ ‘What’d I Say’ (US no. 25, UK no. 10) in 1961.

On 24 March 1962 Jerry Lee Lewis’ son Steve Allen Lewis drowns in a home swimming pool accident.

Two more Jerry Lee Lewis singles are issued in 1962: a cover version of Chuck Berry’s ‘Sweet Little Sixteen’ (US no. 95, UK no. 38) and a ditty entitled ‘How’s My Ex Treating You?’ (US no. 98)

Jerry Lee Lewis and his wife, Myra, become parents again in 1963 when Myra gives birth to a daughter, Phoebe Allen Lewis.

After the album ‘Rockin’ With Jerry Lee Lewis’ (1963) and a cover version of Little Richard’s 1958 hit ‘Good Golly Miss Molly’ (US no. 99, UK no. 31), the Killer’s contract with Sun Records expires on 6 September 1963.  Jerry Lee Lewis moves on to Smash, a subsidiary of Mercury Records.

In 1964 the singles Jerry Lee Lewis places on the pop charts are a cover of Ray Charles’ ‘Hit The Road Jack’ (US no. 102), ‘I’m On Fire’ (US no. 98), and a version of Tommy Tucker’s 1963 song ‘Hi Heel Sneakers’ (US no. 91).  ‘The Return Of Rock’ (1965) (US no. 64) album yields ‘Baby Hold Me Close’ (US no. 129).  This is followed by the albums ‘Country Songs For City Folks / All Country’ (1965), ‘Memphis Beat’ (1966) (US no. 145) and ‘Soul My Way’ (1967).

In 1967 Jerry Lee Lewis and his record producer at Smash, Jerry Kennedy, reassess their situation.  They are frustrated at Lewis’ continuing uphill struggle to get radio airplay in the wake of the commotion about his marriage.  “I decided to cut a country record, and then I talked to a lot of jocks [radio disc jockeys],” recalls Jerry Lee.  “This time I said, ‘Look, man, let’s get together and draw a line on this stuff – a peace treaty, you know.  I’m gonna do “Great Balls Of Fire” and “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’” and “Breathless” and “High School Confidential” and whatever else I wanna do, and I’m also gonna do country stuff onstage.  But my records will all be country, not rock.  So what do you say we get off this kick?’  And they did.”  It’s not quite that simple.  Country songs have been part of Lewis’ recording career from the beginning and, contrary to his words, he does record more rock ‘n’ roll tracks.  The difference is in the emphasis.  Up to this point, Jerry Lee Lewis has been a rock ‘n’ roll artist who does some country music as well.  Now, he becomes a country artist who does some rock ‘n’ roll music as well…for a while anyway.

The album ‘Another Place, Another Time’ (1968) (US no. 160) spawns the title track, ‘Another Place, Another Time’ (US no. 97), as a single along with ‘What’s Made Milwaukee Famous (Has Made A Loser Out Of Me)’ (US no. 94).  ‘She Still Comes Around’ (1969) is followed by ‘Sings The Country Music Hall Of Fame Hits Vol. 1’ (1969) (US no. 127), ‘Sings The Country Music Hall Of Fame Hits Vol. 2’ (1969) (US no. 124), ‘Rockin’ Rhythm And Blues’ (1969) and ‘Together’ (1969), a duet album with Linda Gail Lewis, his younger sister.  Two albums are issued in 1970: ‘She Even Woke Me Up To Say Goodbye’ (1970) (US no. 186) and ‘A Taste Of Country’ (1970).

On 18 November 1970 Jerry Lee Lewis and Myra Gayle Brown divorce.

By this time, Jerry Lee Lewis is recording directly for Mercury Records, rather than Smash.  ‘In Loving Memories: The Jerry Lee Lewis Gospel Album’ (1971) (US no. 213), ‘There Must Be More To Love Than This’ (1971) (US no. 190), ‘Touching Home’ (1971) (US no. 152), ‘Monsters’ (1971) and ‘Would You Take Another Chance On Me’ (1971) (US no. 115) are all released in this busy year.  The singles ‘Touching Home’ (US no. 110) (from the album of the same name) and a cover of Kris Kristofferson’s ‘Me And Bobby McGee’ (US no. 40), the track made famous by Janis Joplin, are released this year.  The latter track comes from ‘Would You Take Another Chance On Me’.

In October 1971 Jerry Lee Lewis marries his fourth wife, Jaren Elizabeth Gunn Pate.  It is said that ‘they separate two weeks later’, but they have a daughter Lori Lee Lewis (born 1972) and remain married for a bit over a decade.

‘The Killer Rocks On’ (1972) (US no. 105) furnishes three singles” a cover of The Big Bopper’s 1958 rock ‘n’ roll hit ‘Chantilly Lace’ (US no. 43), ‘I’m Walking’ (US no. 95) and ‘Turn On Your Love Light’.  ‘Who’s Gonna Play This Old Piano?’ (1972) (US no. 201), is issued the same year.

On 20 January 1973 Jerry Lee Lewis appears at the prestigious country music venue, the Grand Ole Opry.  His reputation precedes him and the Killer is warned not to play any rock ‘n’ roll and to refrain from obscenities.  How can he resist?  By the end of the thirty minute set he has knocked out ‘Great Balls Of Fire’, ‘Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’ and ‘Good Golly Miss Molly’ and announced “I am a rock & rollin’, country & western, rhythm & blues singin’ mother f***er.”

The double album, ‘The Session’ (1973) (US no. 37), includes a new take on ‘Drinkin’ Wine Spo-Dee-O-Dee’ (US no. 41), a song Jerry Lee Lewis first recorded at Sun Records, and ‘No Headstone On My Grave’ (US no. 104).  Two more albums hail from the same year: ‘Sometimes A Memory Ain’t Enough’ (1973) and ‘Southern Roots / Back Home To Memphis’ (1973).

In November 1973 the singer’s eldest child, Jerry Lee Lewis, Junior, dies in a car accident when the jeep he is driving overturns.  He was 19.

Over the next few years Jerry Lee Lewis issues these albums: ‘I-40 Country’ (1974), ‘Boogie Woogie Country Man’ (1975), ‘Odd Man’ (1975) and ‘Country Class’ (1976).

On 29 September 1976, while supposedly trying to shoot a soft-drink bottle in the distance, Jerry Lee Lewis manages to fire two shots from his .357 Magnum into the chest of his bass player, Norman ‘Butch’ Owens.  Lewis is charged with shooting a firearm within the city limits.  Owens survives the incident.  Two months later, Jerry Lee Lewis is arrested again for a firearms issue after his drunken rage outside Elvis Presley’s home on 23 November 1976.

Jerry Lee Lewis’ recording career continues with ‘Country Memories’ (1977), ‘Jerry Lee Keeps Rockin’’(1978) and ‘Duets’ (1979).  The self-titled disc, ‘Jerry Lee Lewis’ (1979) (US no. 186), provides his last single to see the pop charts, ‘Rockin’ My Life Away’ (US no. 101) b/w ‘I Wish I Was Eighteen Again’.  ‘When Two Worlds Collide’ (1980) and ‘Killer Country’ (1980) follow the next year.

The recordings Jerry Lee Lewis made with Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins and Johnny Cash back on 4 December 1956 are finally issued by Sun Records as ‘The Million Dollar Quartet’ (1981).  Presley died in 1977, but the interest aroused by the recordings prompts Lewis, Perkins and Cash to reconvene for ‘The Survivors Live’ (1982) (US no. 205), which is recorded in front of an audience in Stuttgart, Germany on 23 April 1981.

In 1982 Jerry Lee Lewis finally sues his estranged wife, Jaren, for divorce.  She drowns in a swimming pool accident on 8 June 1982 before the divorce is finalised.

‘My Fingers Do The Talkin’’(1983) is released by MCA Records.

In June 1983 Jerry Lee Lewis marries his fifth wife, Shawn Stephens.  The marriage lasts only seventy-seven days.  She dies in August 1983 and it is ‘alleged that Lewis abused her and was responsible for her death.’

In 1984, the same year in which the album ‘I Am What I Am’ (1984) is issued, Jerry Lee Lewis marries for the sixth time.  Kerrie McCarver is his new spouse and she subsequently presents him with another son, Jerry Lee Lewis III (born 1987).

Jerry Lee Lewis and Carl Perkins join forces with another former Sun Records recording artist, Roy Orbison, for ‘Class Of ‘55’ (1986) (US no. 87).

The story of Jerry Lee Lewis is turned into a movie called ‘Great Balls Of Fire’ (1989).  Dennis Quaid plays the role of Lewis and Winona Ryder is cast as Myra Gayle Brown.  There is, of course, a ‘Great Balls Of Fire Soundtrack’ (1989) album.

‘Solid Ground’ (1993), ‘Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’ (1994) (US no. 62) and ‘Young Blood’ (1995) (US no. 31) make up Jerry Lee Lewis’ output for the 1990s.

In 2004, Jerry Lee Lewis and Kerrie McCarver divorce.

Johnny Cash died in 2003, Carl Perkins passed away in 1998, and, as previously mentioned, Elvis Presley died in 1977.  This means that, with all his Million Dollar Quartet collaborators deceased, Jerry Lee Lewis feels justified in titling his next album ‘Last Man Standing’ (2006) (US no. 26).  This is actually a collection of duets, as is the follow-up, ‘Mean Old Man’ (2010) (US no. 30).

On 9 March 2012 Jerry Lee Lewis marries for the seventh time.  His new wife is Judith Brown.  She is the ex-wife of the brother of Myra Gayle Brown, Jerry Lee’s third wife.

Beyond the lurid press clippings, multiple marriages and family tragedies, the essence of Jerry Lee Lewis is still in the recordings.  The crucial part of his career is the time he spent at Sun Records (1956 – 1963).  It is on these songs that can be heard the collision of values that found a former would-be preacher confessing “I got the devil in me.”  The echo-laden, spartan production work of Sam Phillips highlights the rattling piano-playing and whooping yells of the man from Ferriday, Louisiana who left his mark on the course of rock ‘n’ roll during the genre’s first era.  ‘What makes Jerry Lee Lewis great was…the tension in his persona between worldly sin and salvation, a battle in which sin seems destined inevitably to win.’  ‘[Jerry Lee] Lewis was without doubt the wildest white performer; blatantly arrogant, he hollered the lyrics while almost demolishing the piano with a sustained, boogie-styled assault.’

Sources:

  1. ‘Rock Stars’ by Timothy White (Columbus Books, 1984) p. 66, 68-69, 70
  2. ‘Rolling Stone Rock Almanac’ by the Editors of ‘Rolling Stone’ magazine (Papermac, 1984) p. 20, 25, 28, 30, 31, 33, 36, 38, 69, 80, 178, 210, 260, 262, 325
  3. ‘The Illustrated New Musical Express Encyclopedia of Rock’ by Nick Logan, Bob Woffinden (Salamander Books, 1978) p. 140
  4. wikipedia.org as at 29 April 2013, 16 January 2017
  5. ‘The Rolling Stone Illustrated History Of Rock ‘N’ Roll’, ‘Jerry Lee Lewis’ by Jim Miller (Plexus Publishing, 1992), p. 73, 75, 76, 77, 78
  6. ‘The Best Of Jerry Lee Lewis’ – Sleeve notes by Chris Woodford (Music Collection Int. 1992) p. 4, 5, 6
  7. ‘The 500 Greatest Albums Of All Time’ – ‘Rolling Stone’ magazine (February 2004) p. 60
  8. ‘Friday On My Mind’ by Ed Nimmervoll (Five Mile Press, 2004) p. 29
  9. ‘The History of Rock’ by Mark Paytress (Parragon Books, 2011) p. 25
  10. ‘DVD & Video Guide 2007’ by Mick Martin, Marsha Porter (Ballantine Books, 2006) p. 505
  11. ‘Billboard’ magazine, quoted in (5) above, p. 38
  12. ‘The Illustrated Rock Handbook’ edited by Roxanne Streeter, Ray Bonds (Salamander Books, 1983) p. 130

Song lyrics copyright Carlin Music Corp. with the exceptions of ‘Lewis Boogie’ (Knox Music Ltd) and ‘Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On’ (EMI Music Publishing Ltd)

Last revised 16 January 2017

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