The Masters Apprentices
Jim Keays – circa 1970
“Say goodbye to a man and a friend / Played the blues from his soul to the end” – ‘Song For A Lost Gypsy’ (Jim Keays, Doug Ford)
“He had a nervous breakdown while we were on tour in Tasmania,” explains Jim Keays, the vocalist of Australian band The Masters Apprentices. “We had to do the gig that night [in September 1967] in Hobart Town Hall and he couldn’t play and straight after that we rushed him to the hospital.” This is how the band’s original rhythm guitarist and main songwriter Mick Bower exits the group. Jim Keays concludes, “Then we just got on the plane back to Melbourne [Victoria]…”
The story of The Masters Apprentices actually begins with another group, The Mustangs. The setting is Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, in 1964. Most of Australia’s rock music scene is in Melbourne, in the State of Victoria, and Sydney, in New South Wales. These cities are on Australia’s east coast. South Australia is, by contrast, pretty quiet. Adelaide is known as ‘the City of Churches’. So starting a band there is not going to be easy. The Mustangs are initially styled as ‘a surf music instrumental / dance band.’ The four members of the group are Mick Bower (rhythm guitar), Rick Morrison (lead guitar), Gavin Webb (bass) and Brian Vaughton (drums).
British pop sensations The Beatles tour Australia in June 1964. One of their biggest crowds is drawn to their appearance in Adelaide. The Beatles have a profound influence around the world, so it is no surprise that The Mustangs remodel themselves in the wake of the British quartet. The biggest change is the addition of a fifth member to The Mustangs: vocalist Jim Keays.
Jim Keays (9 September 1946 – 13 June 2014) is from Glasgow, Scotland. He is the child of an unwed mother and is put up for adoption. A couple from Clydebank, James Keays (Sr.) and Jessie Cameron (nee Caldwell) Keays, adopt the infant. The Keays have no other children. On 5 September 1951 the family migrates to Australia. They make a home for themselves in Beaumont, a suburb of Adelaide. When young Jim is 11 he is turned on to rock ‘n’ roll after hearing Little Richard’s ‘Rip It Up’ and Jerry Lee Lewis’ ‘Great Balls Of Fire’ on a school friend’s record player.
The Mustangs are quite impressed with their new member. Mick Bower says of Jim Keays, “He’s perfectly suited to being a frontman. Jim has the extroverted personality to do that…He’s a brilliant frontman.”
The group rehearses in a shed behind a hotel owned by the family of drummer Brian Vaughton. Although The Mustangs may have changed direction in the wake of The Beatles, they don’t sound much like that band. By now it is 1965 and the boys are more influenced by acts like The Rolling Stones, Them and The Yardbirds. Although they are all aspiring pop groups like The Beatles, these acts are rougher and darker, drawing more heavily from the earthy sounds of the blues. The Mustangs acquire a manager, Graham Longley.
In late 1965 The Mustangs rename themselves The Masters Apprentices. Mick Bower is said to be the source of the new appellation. He intends to show the group are apprentices to the masters of the blues. Judging by Jim Keays’ introductions on the band’s first album in 1967, the definition of ‘masters’ widens from blues artists to include rock ‘n’ roll pioneers like Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley. Grammatically, the name should include a possessive apostrophe: The Masters’ Apprentices (i.e. the apprentices of the masters [plural]). The band purposefully omits the apostrophe.
‘Wild, Wild Party’, co-written by vocalist Jim Keays and rhythm guitarist Mick Bower, is the first of the original compositions by the group. In early 1966, Graham Longley makes a tape recording of the rehearsals in a garage in John Street. Many years later, this is issued as ‘Mustangs To Masters…First Year Apprentices’ (2004) and includes the frantic, distorted, ‘Wild, Wild Party’. It’s no wonder the sound quality is a bit substandard. ‘The reel-to-reel recorder was placed on the bonnet [hood] of a car and the band played with the vocal mike plugged into the guitar amplifier.’
Although Jim Keays may be the most visible of the group, the true driving force of The Masters Apprentices in the early days is rhythm guitarist Mick Bower. He writes or co-writes all of the group’s original material. “We had a lot of ambition for the band, we were crazy, we really believed in ourselves but in a kind of childlike way,” Bower notes.
The Masters Apprentices begin performing around Adelaide in early 1966. Although they are popular, they are well behind Adelaide acts like The Twilights, featuring vocalist Glenn Shorrock.
They enter the South Australian heat of Hoadley’s ‘Battle of the Sounds’, a contest sponsored by an Australian company that makes chocolate bars and confectionary. The Masters Apprentices come third, with The Twilights winning the heat and, indeed, the national contest for that year.
Astor Records, in Melbourne, displays an interest in The Masters Apprentices. In August 1966 The Masters Apprentices make a five song demo tape and send it off to Astor. Included on the tape are covers of two Chuck Berry songs, a song by the folk/blues artist Leadbelly, a version of British group The Animals’ ‘Inside Looking Out’ and, most importantly, ‘Poor Boy’. The last-named is an original Jim Keays / Mick Bower composition. Its stop-start instrumentation, rattling guitars and amplified throb is the first real indication of the band’s potential.
At the end of October 1966, The Masters Apprentices record a handful of tracks with producer Max Pepper at his Pepper Studios. Lead guitarist Rick Morrison has a riff for a song and Mick Bower helps him complete the number. The fuzz-tone guitar is the result of a faulty valve in Bower’s amplifier, but they like the distortion and decide to leave it. Jim Keays records the grunting vocal at a warehouse across the street from the studio because the warehouse has a better echo. “You gotta give me a little lovin’, honey,” Keays sings, “If you want a lot of love in return.” The group don’t have time to think up a suitable title for the composition before it is sent off to Astor Records so when Max Pepper gets no clear answer from the musicians, ‘Undecided’ is written on the label. Astor issues it, under the title ‘Undecided’ (AUS no. 13), in November 1966 and the first single from The Masters Apprentices becomes a hit.
The group actually prefer the flipside, ‘War Or Hands Of Time’. This track sounds more psychedelic, like an out of focus vision: “War or hands of time will not destroy our dreams of days that are to come / Our tears we shed with understanding / Don’t be sad, I’ll catch the wind on home to you / Wait for the clouds to pass away / Wait for me and I’ll be back some day.” “What is the song about?” repeats its author, Mick Bower. “’War Or Hands Of Time’ was about going to the Vietnam war, conscription.” In Australia, from 1965 young men were picked by ballot based on birthdates to serve in the country’s troops deployed to Vietnam. Jim Keays narrowly avoids such a fate by signing up with the Citizens’ Military Force (later renamed the Army Reserve). He has to pin his hair up under his hat when attending training.
The group’s first line-up change comes at the end of 1966. Drummer Brian Vaughton quits and is replaced by Steve Hopgood. The Masters Apprentices also decide to move from Adelaide to Melbourne to maximise their commercial opportunities. After all, their recording label, Astor, is in Melbourne.
In May 1967 the group’s second single, ‘Buried And Dead’ (AUS no. 26), is released. “I know you said / Our love is buried and dead,” snarls Jim Keays, “Lies, just all lies.” The track was recorded before Brian Vaughton’s departure so it is him pounding its rhythmic attack. The guitar crows like a rooster but the recording’s most notable instrumental flourish is the Indian raga-like middle section, a sort of hypnotic musical scale. ‘Buried And Dead’ is, again, a Mick Bower composition.
Lead guitarist Rick Morrison drops out of the group in May 1967. His exit is attributed to health concerns. Morrison has only one lung and the group’s lifestyle is becoming too much for him. Tony Sommers fills the vacancy. He is only on some of the tracks for the band’s first album; the rest of the recordings feature Rick Morrison.
‘The Masters Apprentices’ (1967), released in June, is the group’s finest album. Other discs may be more polished or considered but the sheer raw energy of this work makes it the most impressive. The cover photo of the band is taken at Como House, a National Trust mansion in South Yarra, Victoria. The album includes the earlier singles ‘Undecided’, ‘War Or Hands Of Time’ and ‘Buried And Dead’. There are covers of songs by Bo Diddley, Chuck Berry, soul man Wilson Pickett, and The Beatles (a slowed down, interestingly different arrangement of ‘I Feel Fine’). The best of the new originals is Mick Bower’s ‘But One Day’. It sports a Middle Eastern guitar figure, Gregorian chants for backing vocals and Jim Keays cryptically intoning “He knows the score / I don’t know anything / But one day he’ll see / That he’s wrong.” Keays claims, “The album was thrown together from various recordings we’d done over the previous year, so it is a hotch potch of styles.” But he also acknowledges, “Yeah, there are some great songs on the album, high quality songs.” Max Pepper is the producer.
In July The Masters Apprentices again enter Hoadley’s ‘Battle of the Sounds’ but come second, with Melbourne’s The Groop winning the 1967 contest.
The next single for The Masters Apprentices, ‘Living In A Child’s Dream’ (AUS no. 4), is issued in August 1967. If the group have previously flirted with psychedelia, this effort fully displays those characteristics. It is a lighter, poppier confection, sprinkled with bright, fizzy instrumentation. Part of the shift in style can be attributed to a different producer being employed. Ian ‘Molly’ Meldrum, later famously associated with the Australian television pop show ‘Countdown’, delivers a typically rich and colourful job. “See the clown who makes the children laugh / As he spins around and shows them all his tricks,” the lyrics state before adding, “Oh, how I wish I were a little boy again…” The song’s author, Mick Bower, allows “I’m not entirely sure but I believe at the time that I had started to go into depressive episodes…” Seen in this light, the lyrics are ‘essentially a reflection of the loss of innocence and a desire to return to a childlike state.’
Mick Bower’s illness flares during a tour of Tasmania in September 1967. Bower is found in ‘extreme distress.’ Despite this, the promoter pushes him into joining the band on stage. Bower stands ‘motionless through the gig, arms hanging limp.’ After the show he is taken to hospital – and effectively leaves The Masters Apprentices. “When Mick left that was a sad thing,” Jim Keays avers. “Mick was such an astute and creative songwriter and he was such an integral part of the band.”
Under these adverse circumstances, Jim Keays becomes the leader of The Masters Apprentices. The band really only survives due ‘to the tenacity of Keays who refuses to give in to defeat.’
Rick Harrison is recruited to replace Mick Bower on rhythm guitar. He comes from Adelaide band, The Others, the same outfit that furnished drummer Steve Hopgood. Unfortunately, Rick Harrison quits ‘after a matter of weeks’. Peter Tilbrook, also from Adelaide, fills the void. This line-up records a new single, though it is not issued until February 1968.
At the end of 1967 both Tony Sommers and Steve Hopgood fall by the wayside. The guitarist and drummer are disenchanted with the mixed fortunes of The Masters Apprentices, so Jim Keays cuts them loose. Stepping into the breach are ‘hot-shot guitarist’ Doug Ford (born 26 January 1945) and drummer Colin Burgess (born 16 November 1946).
The single recorded before this reshuffle, ‘Elevator Driver’ (AUS no. 30), is released in February 1968. Without Mick Bower’s songwriting, The Masters Apprentices called upon The Groop, the combo who won the 1967 ‘Battle of the Sounds’, for material. Brian Cadd and Max Ross of The Groop supplied a song called ‘Silver People’. After some restructuring, it became ‘Elevator Driver’. It is produced by The Masters Apprentices themselves and continues the psychedelic phase. The ‘Elevator Driver’ is asked to carry the narrator “Past the storeys of confusion to my penthouse of illusion.” It’s like peering through a vaguely sinister kaleidoscope.
The membership turmoil continues when bassist Gavin Webb bows out in May 1968. Webb is suffering from stomach ulcers so a life on the road is less appealing. Having recently wed, he has an additional reason to stay closer to home. Gavin Webb is also the last of the original Mustangs. Peter Tilbrook switches from rhythm guitar to act as temporary bassist. This version of the band appears on the next single, though it’s not released until after a full-time bassist is obtained. The man who fills the position shortly after is Glenn Wheatley (born 23 January 1946).
‘Brigette’ (AUS no. 32), released in May 1968, is the track recorded before the advent of Glenn Wheatley. It’s the first work from the new songwriting team for The Masters Apprentices, vocalist Jim Keays and guitarist Doug Ford. This duo composes almost everything the band releases from now on. ‘Brigette’ is still flowery psychedelia, a song featuring strings and flutes. A childhood friend of the narrator “Will wear a ring today.” He rather unconvincingly says of the newlyweds “Hope they’re both satisfied.” This track is, again, self-produced. ‘Brigette’ is also the last song The Masters Apprentices record for Astor.
Note: Astor releases two EPs – ‘The Masters Apprentices Volume 1’ in 1967 and ‘The Masters Apprentices Volume 2’ in 1968 – but these contain no new material and function almost like mini ‘Greatest Hits’ sets.
In July 1968 The Masters Apprentices again compete in the Hoadley’s National ‘Battle of the Sounds’ – and, again, they lose. This time The Groove are the winners. However the contest is so close, The Masters Apprentices are given the same prize as the winner: A trip aboard a cruise ship to England.
In August 1968, Astor releases ‘But One Day’, a track from the debut album by The Masters Apprentices, as a single. The band advises their fans not to buy it, so, of course, it does not fare very well.
By now, the band has a new manager, Darryl Sambell. He is best known at the time as the manager of Johnny Farnham, perhaps Australia’s premier pop singer of the day. Sambell obtains a recording contract for his new clients with EMI Records.
In December 1968 Peter Tilbrook exits The Masters Apprentices. This leaves the group as a four-piece consisting of: Jim Keays (vocals), Doug Ford (guitar), Glenn Wheatley (bass) and Colin Burgess (drums). This configuration proves the longest lasting and most stable in the band’s history. A communication failure between band and manager results in the group, literally, missing the boat, and not making the trip to the U.K. in December. Such conflicts with Darryl Sambell result in the group dispensing with his services. Glenn Wheatley takes on the day-to-day business administration for the group though Sambell is still nominally the manager for a while.
‘Linda Linda’ backed with ‘Merry-Go-Round’, released in February 1969, is The Masters Apprentices’ first product for EMI Records. Howard Gable, a New Zealand born producer, shepherds the group through their next few releases. ‘Linda Linda’ is ‘bubblegum pop’ of a ‘faux-Music hall’ sort. More interesting is ‘Merry-Go-Round’ which, while still having a whiff of psychedelia, is moving towards hard rock. The song is a fairground scene with a Ferris wheel, a roller coaster “And the merry-go-round / Goes round my head.”
July 1969 sees the release of ‘5.10 Man’ (AUS no. 16), an ode to an office drone who catches the evening train at that time. “It’s kids like us that he cans,” sneers Jim Keays, “He can see that we’re free / And we know that it’s just jealousy.” Doug Ford’s massively distorted guitar gives the track some hard rock heft but the song is also leavened by a female backing vocal and a rather theatrical sensibility.
Also in July, The Masters Apprentices make their fourth and final run at the ‘Battle of the Sounds.’ This time, Doug Parkinson In Focus bests them. Unbelievably, the band is again gifted with a complimentary voyage to the U.K. just like the winners.
In December 1969 comes the single ‘Think About Tomorrow Today’ (AUS no. 12). Jim Keays’ lyrics are quite utopian in their vision of youth power: “Oh, we realise a revolution is here / Do you realise it’s the end of our fears?” Counterbalancing this is the brutal aggression of Doug Ford’s guitar work. It’s a good contrast; the rough sound undercuts the fanciful lyrics while the message of hope lifts the hard-scrabble music.
Early in 1970 Jim Keays marries his pregnant girlfriend, Vicki, and they have a son, James.
The Masters Apprentices finally release their second album, ‘Masterpiece’ (1970), in February. This basically collects all the songs from their EMI singles – with the exception of ‘Merry-Go-Round’. It finds room for the B-sides of their last two singles. They are, respectively, the pretty, electric and acoustic guitar instrumental ‘How I Love You’ and ‘A Dog, A Siren & Memories’, a sad tale of a pet vainly waiting for the master who died a year ago in a car accident. Of the rest of the tracks, the most interesting may be ‘St. John’s Wood’, a track the group previously gave away to another Australian band, The Sect, from Brisbane in Queensland. The title track, ‘Masterpiece’ is recorded live. There are short, linking musical interludes between the tracks to give the album a more cohesive format.
A new single, ‘Turn Up Your Radio’ (AUS no. 7), is issued in April. It’s an extraordinary piece with a horn section forming a wedge behind Doug Ford’s corrosive guitar bursts. The vocal takes a trip into the past: “1956 – the juke-boxes really jump / The bass guitar and the drums they really thump.” Just to underline the point, the song goes on to quote from Bill Haley And The Comets’ 1955 hit ‘Rock Around The Clock’. What really makes the song exceptional though is Jim Keays’ vocal performance which is surely one of the most unhinged, wild exhortations ever committed to vinyl. Apparently he was so drunk, he had to be held up to the microphone to sing.
EMI also releases an EP In 1970, ‘Turn Up Your Radio’, which, like Astor’s previous EPs, functions as another instalment of the band’s ongoing history of singles releases.
On 25 May 1970 The Masters Apprentices finally set out on their ocean voyage to Great Britain where they will reside for the indefinite future. Money is tight, but Glenn Wheatley manages to get them some time at Abbey Road studios where The Beatles made most of their records.
The first fruit of this arrangement is the December 1970 single ‘Because I Love You’ (AUS no. 12), The Masters Apprentices’ greatest song. It is a song of two parts. The verses are delicate; Jim Keays gently intones “It’s because I love you / Not because we’re far apart / It’s because I love you / And because you’re near my heart.” The song blossoms into anthemic choruses that articulate the hippie ethos: “Do what you wanna do / Be what you wanna be.” The two parts of the song complement one another neatly. The single’s flip side, ‘I’m Your Satisfier’, is also well regarded.
The Masters Apprentices are forced to raise funds by returning to Australia for a national tour beginning in December 1970.
The album recorded in England, ‘Choice Cuts’ (1971), is issued in February. ‘Because I Love You’ and ‘I’m Your Satisfier’ are part of the album’s track listing. The disc is produced by Englishman Jeff Jarratt. The album displays a wide breadth of styles. ‘Rio de Camero’ is a fast-paced track with a Latin-American flavour. ‘Easy To Lie’ has an ominous feel with metallic guitar and a heavily processed and distorted vocal that observes “The truth is hard / But it’s easy to lie.” ‘Michael’ approximates a gospel tone with a religious implication to its lyrics: “’Will you pray for me?’ he said and sighed / ‘Michael is my name,’ he said and sighed.” The album sometimes feels like a newspaper or magazine, allotting coverage to various figures from the headlines. ‘Death Of A King’ looks at the aftermath of the 1968 assassination of African-American civil rights activist Dr Martin Luther King; ‘Our Friend Owsley Stanley III’ tips its hat to San Francisco’s famed L.S.D. chemist; and ‘Song For A Lost Gypsy’ mourns the passing in 1970 of guitar legend Jimi Hendrix. Unlike previous efforts that comingled singles and additional material, ‘Choice Cuts’ is conceived and executed as a whole. Some pundits regard this as ‘The Masters’ finest moment on record.’
The Masters Apprentices return to the U.K. on 15 May 1971.
Howard Gable records some of the performances from The Masters Apprentices’ 1970-1971 Australian tour for the live album, ‘Nickelodeon’ (1971), released in June. Most of the set listing consists of new songs: the exception is a version of ‘Because I Love You’. From this album, ‘Future Of Our Nation’ (AUS no. 51) is released as a single in the same month. It’s an unusual song, displaying a solemnity and political cynicism new to the band’s output. The sense of this being something alien is added to by Doug Ford providing most of the lead vocal, rather than Jim Keays.
Again working with Jeff Jarratt in England, The Masters Apprentices record the album ‘A Toast To Panama Red’ (1972), which is released in January. The album title is a reference to a variety of marijuana from Central America. This album is sometimes labelled progressive rock. This is a genre that borrows from classical music and avant-garde music while the lyrics aspire to poetry or philosophy. In short, progressive rock feels it has something important to say. ‘Love Is’, even more than ‘Michael’ on the previous album, is steeped in religious imagery. “Oh Lord it seems you’ve been betrayed…Crucify me if you will.” This song is released as a single in February. ‘Thyme To Rhyme’ mixes volleys of acoustic guitar with blobs of sound that shapeshift like a lava lamp. Portentously, it pronounces “Feeling sorry for this song / Now that it’s over.” Doug Ford substitutes for Glenn Wheatley, playing some of the bass parts on this album. Wheatley’s time is increasingly consumed with management activities.
Glenn Wheatley decides to leave the group. Jim Keays opts for a solo career. Denny Burgess, the brother of drummer Colin Burgess, is brought in as bassist and, together with Doug Ford, they attempt to soldier on as a trio. It soon becomes apparent this is not going to work and The Masters Apprentices disband in mid-1972.
Glenn Wheatley marries Alison Sunde on 12 February 1972 but this ends in a ‘nasty divorce.’ From 1975, Wheatley uses his management experience to guide the career of Little River Band, featuring former Twilights’ vocalist Glenn Shorrock. From 1980 he also becomes the manager of John Farnham, the more mature sobriquet of Darryl Sambell’s old charge, Johnny Farnham. For a while (1982 -1985) Farnham even replaces Shorrock in Little River Band before, with Wheatley at his side, experiencing a mid-1980s solo career renaissance. Glenn Wheatley marries again on 14 July 1982. His new bride is Australian actress Gaynor Martin, best known for her roles on the Australian television soap operas ‘Skyways’ (in 1979) and ‘Sons and Daughters’ (1982). The new Mr & Mrs Wheatley go on to have three children: Tim (born 17 March 1984), Samantha (born 5 June 1985) and Kara (born 27 August 1986).
Jim Keays splits up with his wife, Vicki, in 1981. He makes contact with his biological mother in 1984. Keays marries again and he and his second wife, Karin, have two daughters, Holly and Bonnie. They had a son, William, but he died after only six hours on 1 November 2003.
The Masters Apprentices – Jim Keays, Doug Ford, Glenn Wheatley and Colin Burgess – reunite in August 1987 for an episode of Australian television variety show ‘Hey Hey It’s Saturday’. This leads to a reunion tour in 1988, though Wheatley bows out after the first few shows. Wayne Matthews (bass) and Roger Paynes (guitar, keyboards) augment the act thereafter. A new album, ‘Do What You Wanna Do’ (1988), features new versions of old songs and a few new pieces such as the single ‘Birth Of The Beat’ in December 1988. This line-up folds in 1991.
The group sporadically reunites. In 1997 Pete Farnan (keyboards, guitar), John Favaro (bass) and Tony Day (drums) are involved.
In 1999 both Jim Keays and Glenn Wheatley release their memoirs. These books are, respectively, ‘His Master’s Voice: The Masters Apprentices – The Bad Boys of Sixties Rock ‘N’ Roll’ and ‘Paper Paradise: Confessions of a Rock ‘N’ Roll Survivor’.
A 2001-2002 reunion finds Tim Wheatley (now 17) substituting for his famous father in The Masters Apprentices.
In 2007 Glenn Wheatley is convicted of tax evasion and handed a prison sentence of thirty months, with a minimum fifteen months to be served. He is released on 19 May 2008. In another brush with the law, Wheatley is arrested for drunk driving on 14 May 2010 and loses his driver’s licence for six months.
In 2007 Jim Keays is diagnosed with myeloma, a cancer of the blood cells. After treatment, the cancer goes into remission but, in 2014, he contracts pneumonia and, in his weakened state, passes away on 13 June 2014. Jim Keays was 67.
The career of The Masters Apprentices chewed up a number of musicians and encompassed nearly as many styles of music. Given that, the level of consistent quality is surprisingly high. Certainly, it is possible that, for instance, some people may like their rough, blues-infused early material but find their progressive rock era off-putting – or vice versa. Yet for anyone appreciating diversity, there are positive contributions all along the road. The Masters Apprentices may have been ‘the best Australian rock band of the 1960s…moving from flower pop and hard rock to progressive and acoustic sounds.’ They had ‘a colourful and varied body of work, stretching from early post Beatles right through to 1970s glam.’
- ‘The Masters Apprentices’ (1967) – Sleeve notes by Ian McFarlane (Aztec Music 2009 reissue) p. 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 22, 23, 24
- wikipedia.org as at 13 May 2013, 14 June 2014
- ‘Adelaide Matters’ (2000) – Brian Vaughton interview conducted by Jeff Crawford (reproduced on milesago.com)
- ‘Masters Apprentices: Fully Qualified – The Choicest Cuts’ – Anonymous sleeve notes (EMI Miusic Australia Pty Limited, 2006) p. 3, 4, 11
- ‘Friday On My Mind’ by Ed Nimmervoll (Five Mile Press, 2004) p. 72, 85, 134, 153
- Internet movie database – imdb.com – as at 21 June 2013
- allmusic.com, ‘Masters Apprentices’ by Richie Unterberger as at 12 June 2013
Song lyrics copyright MCA Music Australia Pty Ltd (1965 -1968) and EMI Music Publishing Australia Pty Ltd (1969-1972)
Last revised 14 June 2014